GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer

S.No Particulars
1 Glass fibre chopped strands MAT (CSM) as res ISI-11551-1986
2 Glass Fibre Roving as per ISI-11320-1985
3 Isophthelic resin as per ISI-6746-1972
4 Measuring instruments
5 Accelerator used will be Cobalt Napthalate
6 Permissible Fillers are Calcium Carbonate Powder
7 UV Pigments
8 Mould releaser
9 UV - Primer Paint and Laquer
10 Antimony Trioxide, minimum 5% by weight of isophthalic resin, shall be used for fire retardancy
11 The filler and additive content shall not exceed 10% by weight of isophthalic resin
12 Auxiliary Chemical
13 Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) and wax shall be used as a mould release agent
14 Pigments compatible with isophthalic resin and gelcoat will be used to get the shad of finish as mutually agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
15 Core mat
16 Curing Agents.
17 Catalyst used shall be Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP)
18 Gelcoat
19 Fillers , Additives and Bonding Paste.
20 Permissible Fillers are French chalk powder (Talc) and Calcium Carbonate.

PROCEDURE OF MANUFACTURING OF Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer PRODUCTS

S.No
1 With the help of Gelcoat and Chopper Machine, a coat of Isophthallic UV Gelcoat mixed with 15% by weight arcelon powder (500 micrgram Silica) with UV pigments (for resistance against color fading), suitably formulated to high viscosity is applied at 1000gsm over the moulds in two layers of fibre glass chopped stand matt@ 450gsm in each layer and one layer of glass roving about 450gsm (for better strength), in order to provide a smooth glossy finish enhancing aesthetic and improved weathering and water resistant property of the Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products. The CSM Mat shall be bounded with Isophthallic FR and UV resin in the ratio not less than 1:2 (one part of CSM Mat to two parts of Isophthallic resins and fibres and additives). The edges shall be sealed with Gelcoat, Resin and CSM to obtain smooth finish. Sufficient 4021 roving shall be laid in the corner to have smooth curve while laying the CSM MAT. Applying glossy finished Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer sheet with same color as product is fixed over the back of the product with gelcoat, resin and CSM. Filling cavities with filler material and prepare for compaction on vibratory bed. Release from mould with the help of technical tools and send for trimming and final finishing and polishing with chemical and packing with scratch proof film. The surface of the product shall be free from any visible defects such as small pores, crazing, blistering, wrinkling, impurities, defective impregnation, color blots and aggregates defects. Scattered pin holes, if any shall be repaired and finished by applying Gelcoat and Resins.The product is ready for dispatch.

Table 3 : TESTS ON Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer product

S.No Test Test Method as per Acceptable Value
1 Fibre Glass Content ISO: 1172-1975 Not less than 25%
2 Barcol Hardness ASTM:D2583-1987 Not less than 26 BIU when tested on the face of laminate finished with gel coat
3 Ultimate Tensile Unit Strength BS: 4994-1973 Not less than 150 N/mm per Kg/m2 of glass
4 Tensile Unit Modulus ISO: 3268-1978 Not less than 6500N/mm per kg/m2 of glass
5 Flexural Strength ISO: 178-1975 Not less than 110 N/mm2
6 Flexural Modulus ISO: 175-1975 Not less than 7000 N/mm2
7 Izod Impact ISO: 180-1982 Not less than 10 J/cm
8 Water Absorption after seven days of immersion ISO: 62-1980 Not less than 0.5% by weight

TYPICAL FIBRE GLASS PROPERTIES

S.No Test Method as per Acceptable Value
1 Flexural strength, psi @ 77 degrees F 28000
2 Flexural modulus, psi @ 77 degrees F 1.07 x 106
3 Tensile strength, psi @ 77 degrees F 16800
4 Elongation 2.2
5 Elongation 1.0% to 2.5%
6 Barcol hardness 45 to 50
7 Glass content 21%
8 Quartz Content 30%
9 Specific gravity 1.62
10 ASTM E-84 (Tunnel test) <25
11 UL Subject 94 V
12 Thickness 4.5mm

Testing of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer product material can be done at the following labs at the following .

Shree Ram Test Lab, New Delhi Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi

S.No Test Method as per Acceptable Value
1 Flexural strength, psi 16,000 to 32,000
2 Flexural modulus, psi 0.8 to 1.4 X 106
3 Tensile strength, psi 9,000 to 18,000
4 Tensile modulus, psi 0.8 to 1.4 X 106
5 Elongation 1.0% to 2.5%
6 Compressive strength, psi 15,000 to 25,0000
7 Impact strength izod,Ib.In. of notch 4 to 12
8 Specific gravity 1.0 to 1.8
9 Density, Ibs./ft.3 80 to 110
10 Continuous heat resistance 150 to 350
11 Thermal Coefficient of Expansion, in/in/Fx 10- 12 to 20
12 Barcol hardness 40 to 60

LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN AND OTHER STANDARDS OF Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer PRODUCTS

IS: 6746-1972 Unsaturated polyester resin system for low pressure fibre reinforced plastic
IS: 11320-1985 Glass fibre rovinings for reinforcement and of epoxide resin system.
IS: 11551-1986 Glass fibre chopped strand mat for the reinforcement of polyester resin system
IS: 12406-1988 Specification for medium density fibre board for general purposes
ISO: 62-1980 Plastic - Determination of water absorption
ISO: 178-1975 Plastic - Determination of flexural properties of rigid plastic.
ISO: 180-1982 Plastic - Determination of Izod impact strength of rigid material.
ISO: 1172-1975 Textile glass reinforced plastic - Determination of loss on ignition
ISO: 3268-1978 Plastic - Glass reinforced materials- Determination of Tensile properties
BS: 4994-1973 Specification for vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics
ASTM: D2583-1987 Test method for indentation hardness of rigid plastic

COMPARISON AND ADVANTANGES OF GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER OVER GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE AND ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE PANEL

S.No G.F.R.P G.R.C A.C.P
1 30% Glass Fibre Reinforcements 4% to 6% Glass Fibre Reinforcements No Reinforcements
2 Woven Continues Roving + CSM 35mm length + Polyester Honey Comb. 6mm to 10mm length Nil
3 Quartz on surface Limestone and Cement Aluminium Foil
4 High abrasion resistance No abrasion resistance No abrasion resistance
5 High impact resistance Poor impact resistance No impact resistance
6 Does not develop fungus Fungus can develop easily Does not develop fungus
7 Can take localized impact Does not take impact Does not take impact
8 Does not absorb moisture Absorbs moistures Does not absorb moisture
9 Available in various natural finishes and textures Available in stucco only No natural or texture finish available
10 Product thickness 4 to 6mm 20mm minimum 3 to 4mm
11 16.5 Ibs P. Meter Square 85.8 to 221 Ibs. P. Meter Square Weight per meter 8.25Ibs P. Meter square
12 Various colors in same product Single color Single color
13 Can be stained Can be stained Can be stained
14 Can be directly mounted on brick wall or M.S. frame Needs RCC structure Needs M.S. Or Aluminium Frame
15 Widely used in developed countries Hardly used in developed countries Widely used in developed countries
16 Low installation cost High installation cost High installation cost
17 Easy for fitment Difficult for fitment due to weight Difficult for fitment due to extensive metal structure
18 Low processing time High processing time Low processing time
19 Does not get discoloured due to moisture Can get discoloured due to moisture and fungus Does not get discoloured due to moisture
20 Fire Retardant Fire Retardant Flammable

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products are recreated with various composites i.e. wood, stone, steel, GRC and ACP available in various finishes and textures.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products are unique with glass fibres, and with very high impact and weather resistance. Due to its light weight, large product in single peice can be moulded in various forms and textures. Very intricate forms including undercuts can be managed.

RELATIVE ADVANTAGE OF Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer is a material with higher tensile, flexural and impact strength, complete elastic behaviour under stress and its impact is absorbed without deformation.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products are lighter in weight compared to GRC. With minimum GRC product thickness of 15mm, GRC weight is 30Kg per sqr.mtr, while 3 mm Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer can weigh 4.5 to 5 Kg per Sqr.mtr.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer has higher strength to weight ratio as compared to GRC

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer is structural material, while GRC is Non-Structural Cladding material.

Even though GRC has right properties, nobody goes for slabs or support columns in GRC

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer has better chemical resistance especially to acids while cement from GRC is affected. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer has no joint issues like GRC.

Comparison of Steel Wooden PVC Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCT

S.No Features Steel products Wooden products PVC products Composite Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products
1 Weight/Sp.Gravity 7.86kg/m2/mm 0.80kg2/m2/mm 0.95kg/m2/mm 1.40kg/m2/mm
2 Surface Finish Poor Poor Extremely Flimsy & Shabby looking Extremely Smooth, One piece moulded
3 Effect of heat or sunlight No effect but remain heat for much longer period Quick ageing due to direct heat & sunlight Deformation occurs due to heat & colour fades due to UV rays from sunlight No effect of heat or sunlight as it is made with UV protected additives
4 Rattling Rattles very much & produces uncomfortable sound Rattles less but makes cracking sound because of joints. No rattling but other sounds due to corrosion or screws in frame work Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer produces being made from sound dampening material do not make any noise
5 Safety against accidental/natural calamity Dangerous due to heavy weight & possibility of joint failure due to corrosion in rains Due to heavy weight & possibility of joint failure due to corrosion in rains they are unsafe. Not very safe as sharp edges of aluminum frame work may injure people around Safest due to light weight & low specific gravity. No harm even in the most critical circumstances
6 Insulation for heat Bad Better Average Very Good
7 Corrosion Maximum Corrosion Expansion due to high water absorption Speedy bio-chemical degradation No Corrosion since all the products are moulded
8 Repairing More difficult as involves hot process Difficult & time consulting Can be done by specialized person only Repairing can be easily done on site by skilled labour
9 Sizing/Machining Not possible easily Possible by expert carpenters Can be done by specialized person only Sizes can’t be altered since places are moulded.
10 Maintenance Very frequent painting is required Frequent painting/Polishing is required. Matching the swelling in wood during rains is required for maintaining smooth operation Less possibility for maintenance. Aesthetics have to be sacrificed if maintenance is attended Zero maintenance & no recurring cost since no absorption of water and negligible effect of UV rays/Sunlight

OTHER ADVANTAGES OF GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER PRODUCTS

Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products are made of Ultra Violet stable polymer with fire retardant material to withstand temperatures of -40C to +75C. Structures can be made by using sections in various forms with variants of glass fibre or woven rovings and polyester honeycomb to give added stability. Paint can be used as the surface finish or color. A protective coating of aliphatic grade 2k polyurethane scratch resistant automotive paint, with capacity to withstand -40C to +75C is used. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products are installed like any dry cladding material as granite and sandstone or with stainless steel dowels. These are developed to meet international standards and to withstand extreme temperatures and weather conditions. These are also designed to withstand high wind pressures of coastal states.

What are Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products

Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic products are a composite of fibreglass and polymer resin that, when combined, offer a stronger, more durable, corrosion resistant and heat-resistant product; not found in any other type of metal products. Using a mold to create the finished product, fibreglass is generally thermoset with a type of polymer resin, when cured, the end product will hold its shape because of the resin while the fibreglass will provide strength and stiffness. Just as important, the resin has additional corrosion-resistant and heat–resistant properties. This technology has led to increased durability and strength in hostile and corrosive environments.

The utilization of composite materials, in particular Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer, offer new application and new markets every day. Thanks to the development of new products and the constant improvement of the fabrication processes.

Aside the environmental benefit, Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer has many advantages over other common materials such as steel, almunium and wood.

Composites are an innovative and cost effective solution! The advantages are:

  • High strength to weight ratio- Composites weigh 32% less than aluminum and the fibre can be oriented to maximize performance.
  • Radar transparency- Glass fibre and organic matrix are relatively invinsible to microwave (radar) transmissions.
  • productivity - In some application, such as highly contoured parts. Composites are more economical to produce than metals • Fire resistance - Composites can be designed to withstand 2000 of open flames-surpassing aluminum.
  • Corrosion resistant – Composites exhibit exceptional corrosion resistant properties.
  • Retards Chemical Attacks - Protect steel, concrete, wood and other surfaces against acid salt, solvents, alkalies and other chemicals.
  • Fight Moisture Damage - Safeguard floor, trenches, wells, pump bases, reservoirs and tanks against moisture and water exposure.
  • Eliminate downtime for repairs - Hardens/cures within hours. The molding can be repaired/reworked easily at site.
  • Desired Finish - Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products can be molded as per the design needs. Exteremely smooth one piece molding replaces shabby looking fabricated. The product can be easily modified to get the desired surface finish.
  • Other – Impact resistence, electrical insulation, thermal insulation, shock absorption and more.

We Deliver Defect-Free products

We have a competitive edge over other service providers. Many customer do not realize that the Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer products can develop the following defects, if not installed or manufactured properly. Therefore, our products are free from these flaws:

  • Presence of impurities like pin holes, traces of mending at localized places.
  • Color blots due to uneven distribution of coloring material.
  • Crazing and defective impregnation, fine surface cracks etc.
  • Gelcoat errors, as the compatible fire-resistant gelcoat is often forgotten by the manufacturers.
  • Impurities like foreign matter and blisters in the material.
  • Improper Lamination and uneven spread of laminates.
  • Pinhole defects.
  • Small Pores more than 1 mm, which is not acceptable.
  • Wrinkles due to under curing of gelcoat and improper application.